The regulation of biotechnology in the United States is based around the 1986 policy, "Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnolgy" which can be found here . This policy was created to attempt to regulate the release of products created through the use of biotechnolgy. Under this policy, agricultural GM products are monitored by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) , FDA (Food and Drug Administration), and EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) predominantly. The head agency of this regulation being the USDA department APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service), which is charged with responsibility for any regulated articles, those that contain materials from known plant pests. Under this policy, only certain aspects of the approval process fall under the "Federally Funded" category, thus requiring the applicant to fund many aspects of the approval process.
Non-monitored release of a product into the United States requires approval of all agencies before it is considered legal approval.
An excellent summary of the regulatory policy in the United States can be found here:
A summary of the GM products and the responsible agencies in the United States:
|United States Department of Agriculture|